Clive Ruggles

Astronomical heritage

Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy

Read more on the UNESCO–IAU Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy and about astronomical heritage in general

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ICOMOSIAU Thematic Studies on Astronomical Heritage

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Stonehenge and Ancient Astronomy

 

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Image collection

Leicester University Archive

An archival collection of c. 1100 images of archaeological and archaeoastronomical interest has been available on-line since 1995.

     

     

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Publications

                   Selected books

                Selected papers & articles

 

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Books published and in press

     

(Editor) Heritage Sites of Astronomy in the context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: Thematic Study no. 2. ICOMOS / Ocarina Books (2017)

 

     

(with Rubellite Kawena Johnson and John Kaipo Mahelona) Nā Inoa Hōkū: Hawaiian and Pacific Star Names (revised edition). Ocarina Books (distributed by University of Hawai‘i Press) (2015)

     

(Editor-in-Chief) Handbook of Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy (3 volumes). Springer (2014)

 

     

(Editor) Archaeoastronomy in the 1990s. E-reprint, Ocarina Books, Bognor Regis (2014; originally published 1993)

     

(Editor) Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures. Cambridge University Press (2011)

     

(Co-editor and principal author with Michel Cotte) Heritage Sites of Astronomy in the context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: A Thematic Study. ICOMOS–IAU (2010 [e-edition] & 2011 [printed edition])

     

(Co-editor with Gary Urton) Skywatching in the Ancient World: New Perspectives in Cultural Astronomy. University Press of Colorado (2007 [hardback] & 2010 [paperback/e-book])

     

Ancient Astronomy: An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara (2005)

     

(Assistant editor) Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. Ocarina Books and Center for Archaeoastronomy (2005)

     

(Editor) Records in Stone: Papers in Memory of Alexander Thom. Cambridge University Press (Reprinted 2003; originally published 1988).

     

(Co-editor with Frank Prendergast and Tom Ray) Astronomy, Cosmology, and Landscape. Ocarina Books, Bognor Regis (2001 [printed edition] & 2011 [e-edition])

     

Astronomy in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland. Yale University Press (1999)

     

(Co-editor with Nicholas Saunders) Astronomies and Cultures. University Press of Colorado (1993)

       

(Co-editor with David Medyckyj-Scott, Ian Newman and David Walker) Metadata in the Geosciences. Group D Publications, Loughborough (1991)

     

(Editor and principal author) Formal Methods in Standards. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1990)

       

(Co-editor with Sebastian Rahtz) Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 1987. BAR International Series 393, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford (1988)

     

Megalithic Astronomy: a New Archaeological and Statistical Study of 300 Western Scottish Sites. BAR British Series 123, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford (1984)

       

(Co-editor with Alasdair Whittle) Astronomy and Society in Britain During the Period 4000-1500 BC. BAR British Series 88, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford (1981)

 

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Selected papers and articles

   

“Whose equinox?” (reprint of 1997 article) and “Still our equinox?” (Accompanying commentary). Journal of Skyscape Archaeology, 3(1) (2017). 127–135.

 

   

(With E. Galili, J. Benjamin, I. Herskovitz, M. Weinstein-Evron, I. Zohar, V. Eshed, D. Cvikel, J. Melamed, Y. Kahanov, J. Bergeron, A. Ronen and L.K. Horwitz) Atlit-Yam: a unique 9000-year-old prehistoric village submerged off the Carmel Coast, Israel — The SPLASHCOS Field School (2011). In G.N. Bailey et al. (eds), Under the Sea: Archaeology and Palaeolandscapes of the Continental Shelf, Springer, New York (2017), pp. 85–102.

 

 

Chapters in Clive Ruggles (ed.), Heritage Sites of Astronomy in the context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: Thematic Study no. 2, ICOMOS/Ocarina Books (2017):

  • Introduction (with Michel Cotte), pp. 1–6
  • Seven-stone antas, Portugal and Spain (with Juan Belmonte and Luís Tirapicos), pp. 17–39
  • Stonehenge World Heritage Property, United Kingdom (with Amanda Chadburn), pp. 41–62
  • Discussion, pp. 291–304
   

Archaeoastronomical interests in Avebury and its landscape. In Matt Leivers and Andrew B. Powell (eds), A Research Framework for the Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites World Heritage Site: Avebury Resource Assessment (Wessex Archaeology Monograph 38), Wessex Archaeology, Salisbury (2016), p. 98.

 

     

A iniciativa UNESCO–IAU “Astronomia e Patrimônio Mundial”: sucessos, temas e prospecções. In Priscila Faulhaber and Luiz C. Borges (eds), Perspectivas etnográficas e históricas sobre as astronomias, Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins—MAST, Rio de Janeiro (2016), pp. 7–17. [In Portuguese]

 

     

(With Michael J. Allen, Ben Chan, Ros Cleal, Charles French, Peter Marshall, Joshua Pollard, Rebecca Pullen, Colin Richards, David Robinson, Jim Rylatt, Julian Thomas, Kate Welham and Mike Parker Pearson) Stonehenge’s avenue and Bluestonehenge. Antiquity, 90 (2016), 991–1008.  See commentary

 

 

Articles in Piero Benvenuti (ed.), Astronomy in Focus: As presented at the IAU XXIX General Assembly, 2015 (Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union XXIXA), Cambridge University Press (2016):

  • Focus Meeting 2, ‘Astronomical heritage: progressing the UNESCO–IAU initiative’ (with Anna Sidorenko), pp. 79–82
  • The IAU’s involvement in the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative: achievements and challenges, pp. 89–92
  • Establishing the credibility of archaeostronomical sites, pp. 97–99
  • Nā Inoa Hōkū: Hawaiian and Pacific Star Names (with Rubellite Kawena Johnson and John Kaipo Mahelona), pp. 140–141
  • Session 21.4—World Heritage and the protection of working observatory sites, pp. 463–472

 

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(With Timothy M. Gill, Patrick V. Kirch and Alexander Baer) Ideology, ceremony and calendar in pre-contact Hawai‘i: astronomical alignment of a stone enclosure on O‘ahu suggests ceremonial use during the Makahiki season. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 124(3) (2015), 243–268.  See commentary

 

 

Articles in Clive Ruggles (ed.), Handbook of Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy (3 volumes), Springer (2014):

  • Calendars and astronomy, pp. 15–30
  • Nature and analysis of material evidence relevant to archaeoastronomy, pp. 353–372
  • Best practice for evaluating the astronomical significance of archaeological sites, pp. 373–388
  • Analyzing orientations, pp. 411–425
  • Basic concepts of positional astronomy, pp. 459–472
  • Long-term changes in the appearance of the sky, pp. 473–482
  • Stellar alignments—identification and analysis, pp. 517–530
  • Chankillo (with Iván Ghezzi), pp. 807–820
  • Geoglyphs of the Peruvian coast, pp. 821–830
  • Mursi and Borana calendars, pp. 1041–1050
  • Stonehenge and its landscape, pp. 1223–1238
  • Recumbent stone circles, pp. 1277–1285
  • Scottish short stone rows, pp. 1287–1296
  • Monuments of the Giza plateau, pp. 1519–1530
  • Archaeoastronomy in Polynesia, pp. 2231–2245
  • Ancient Hawaiian astronomy, pp. 2247–2260
     

(With Erin Nell) The orientations of the Giza pyramids and associated structures, Journal for the History of Astronomy, 45 (2014), 304–360.  See commentary

 

 

(With Vince Gaffney, Simon Fitch, Eleanor Ramsey, Ron Yorston, Eugene Ch'ng, Eamonn Baldwin, Richard Bates, Christopher Gaffney, Tom Sparrow, Anneley McMillan, Dave Cowley, Shannon Fraser, Charles Murray, Hilary Murray, Emma Hopla and Andy Howard) Time and a place: a luni-solar ‘time-reckoner’ from 8th millennium BC Scotland. Internet Archaeology, 34 (2013), no. 1.  See commentary

 

     

(With Patrick V. Kirch and Warren Sharp) The Pānānā or “sighting wall” at Hanamauloa, Kahikinui, Maui: archaeological investigation of a possible navigational monument. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 122(1) (2013), 45–68.  See commentary

 

       

Astronomical potential of the post-hole circle. In Stuart Boulter and Penelope Walton Rogers (eds), Circles and Cemeteries: Excavations at Flixton, Volume I. East Anglian Archaeology 147, Suffolk County Council Archaeological Service, Bury St Edmonds, 46–48.

 

     

The recognition of ‘Outstanding Universal Value’ in relation to astronomy at dark-sky sites. In John Hearnshaw, Karen Pollard and Marilyn Head (eds), Proceedings of the Third International Starlight Conference, Lake Tekapo, New Zealand, Starlight Conference Organizing Committee, Christchurch, 2013, 5–13.

 

 

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(With Nicholas Saunders) Desert Labyrinth: Lines, landscape and meaning at Nazca, Peru, Antiquity, 86 (2012), 1126–1140.  See commentary

 

       

(With Iván Ghezzi) El contexto social y ritual de las observaciones del horizonte astronómico en Chankillo. In Miľosz Giersz and Iván Ghezzi (eds), Arqueología de la Costa de Ancash, Centro de Estudios Precolombinos de la Universidad de Varsovia and Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, Warsaw–Lima, 2011, 135–152. [In Spanish]

 

 

Pushing back the frontiers or still running around the same circles? ‘Interpretative archaeoastronomy’ thirty years on. In Clive Ruggles (ed.), Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures, Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1–18.

 

(With Iván Ghezzi) The social and ritual context of horizon astronomical observations at Chankillo. In Clive Ruggles (ed.), Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures, Cambridge University Press, 2011, 144–153.

 

(With Krzysztof Makowski) Watching the sky from the ushnu: the sukanka-like summit temple in Pueblo-Viejo–Pucara (Lurin Valley, Peru). In Clive Ruggles (ed.), Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures, Cambridge University Press, 2011, 169–177.

     

(With Efrosyni Boutsikas) Temples, stars and ritual landscapes: the potential for archaeoastronomy in ancient Greece. American Journal of Archaeology, 115(1) (2011), 55–68.

   

Indigenous astronomies and progress in modern astronomy. In Ray Norris and Clive Ruggles (eds), “Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery” (Special Session 5, XXVII IAU General Assembly, August 11–14 2009, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Proceedings of Science, 2010, PoS(sps5)029. 18pp.

 

       

Astronomy and world heritage. In Ian F. Corbett (ed), “Highlights of the XXVII IAU General Assembly, August 2009.” Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 6 (Transactions T27B), 2010, 12–17.

 

     

Megalithic astronomical sightlines: Current reassessment and future directions. In D.C. Heggie (ed.), Archaeoastronomy in the Old World, Cambridge University Press (Reprinted 2009; originally published 1982), 83–105.

       

 

Il generale e lo specifico: alcuni problemi metologici in archeoastronomia. In M. Codebò (ed.), Archeoastronomia: un Dibattito tra Archeologi ed Astronomi alla Ricerca di un Metodo Comune [Archaeoastronomy: a debate between archaeologists and astronomers looking for a common method] (Atti del Convegno Internazionale XIII, Istituto Internazionale di Studi Liguri), De Ferrari, Genova, 2009, 205–215. [in Italian; English translation on accompanying CD]

       

 

(With Irakli Simonia and Nodar Bakhtadze) An astronomical investigation of the seventeen-hundred year old Nekresi Fire Temple in the eastern part of Georgia. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 12(3) (2009), 235–239.

     

Astronomy and world heritage. World Heritage, no. 54 (3rd quarter 2009), 6–15. French and Spanish versions in Patrimoine Mondiale and Patrimonio Mundial respectively.

       

(With Ivan Ghezzi) Las trece torres de Chankillo: Arqueoastronomía y organización social en el primer observatorio solar de América. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, 10 (2008 [dated 2006]), 215–235. [In Spanish]

       

 

(With Irakli Simonia and Raul Chagunava) Ethnographic and literary reflections on ancient Georgian astronomical heritage. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 11(3) (2008), 213–218.

 

 

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(With Ivan Ghezzi) Chankillo: a 2,300-year-old solar observatory in coastal Peru. In Anthony F. Aveni (ed.), Foundations of New World Cultural Astronomy, University Press of Colorado, 2008, 181–198. [First published 2007.]

 

(With Nicholas Saunders) The study of cultural astronomy. In Anthony F. Aveni (ed.), Foundations of New World Cultural Astronomy, University Press of Colorado, 2008, 725–750. [First published 1993.]

 

 

(With Gary Urton) Introduction. In Clive Ruggles and Gary Urton (eds), Skywatching in the Ancient World: New Perspectives in Cultural Astronomy, University Press of Colorado, 2010 [2007], 1–15.

 

Cosmology, calendar, and temple orientations in ancient Hawai‘i. In Clive Ruggles and Gary Urton (eds), Skywatching in the Ancient World: New Perspectives in Cultural Astronomy, University Press of Colorado, 2010 [2007], 287–329.

 

     

Interpreting solstitial alignments in Late Neolithic Wessex. Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, 20 (2007 [dated 2006]), 1–27.

       

 

(With Mike Parker Pearson, Ros Cleal, Peter Marshall, Stuart Needham, Josh Pollard, Colin Richards, Alison Sheridan, Julian Thomas, Chris Tilley, Kate Welham, Andrew Chamberlain, Carolyn Chenery, Jane Evans, Chris Knüsel, Neil Linford, Louise Martin, Janet Montgomery, Andy Payne and Mike Richards) The Age of Stonehenge. Antiquity, 81 (2007), 617–639.

 

 

(With Ivan Ghezzi) Chankillo: a 2300-Year-Old Solar Observatory in Coastal Peru. Science, 315 (2007), 1239–1243 and supporting materials.

 

     

Arqueoastronomía en Polinesia. In José Lull García (ed.), Trabajos de Arqueoastronomía, Agrupación Astronómica de La Safor, Gandía, Spain, 2006, 257–281. [In Spanish]

       

Archaeoastronomy. In Colin Renfrew and Paul Bahn (eds), Archaeology: The Key Concepts, 11-16. Routledge, Abingdon, 2005.

 

Landscape archaeology and the archaeology of pilgrimage: a view from across the Atlantic. In John B. Carlson (ed.), Pilgrimage and the Ritual Landscape in Pre-Columbian America, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC. Remains in press.

 

     

(With David Turton). The haphazard astronomy of the Mursi. In Von Del Chamberlain, John Carlson and M. Jane Young (eds) with Clive Ruggles (assistant editor), Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World, Ocarina Books, Bognor Regis and Center for Archaeoastronomy, College Park MD, 2005, 299–309.

       

 

Heiau orientations and alignments in Kaua‘i. Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, 16 (2002 [dated 2001]), 46–82.

 

L’uso dell’Archeoastronomia nell’esplorazione della cosmologia antica: problemi di teoria e metodo. In Francesco Bertola, Giuliano Romano and Eduardo Proverbio (eds), L’Uomo Antico e il Cosmo, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Atti dei Convegni Lincei), Rome, 2002, 19–33. [In Italian]

 

 

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The general and the specific: dealing with cultural diversity. Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, 15 (2001 [dated 2000]), 151–177.

 

(With Joshua Pollard) Shifting perceptions: spatial order, cosmology, and patterns of deposition at Stonehenge. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 11(1) (2001), 69–90.

 

Astronomy, oral literature, and landscape in ancient Hawai‘i. Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, 14(2) (2000 [dated 1999]), 33-86.

 

Ancient astronomies—ancient worlds. Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 25 (2000), S65–76.

 

     

(With Gordon Barclay) Cosmology, calendars and society in Neolithic Orkney: a rejoinder to Euan MacKie. Antiquity, 74 (2000), 62-74. Reprinted in Timothy Darvill and Caroline Malone (eds), Megaliths from Antiquity (Antiquity Papers, 3), Antiquity Publications, York, 2003, 339–354.

       

 

Ritual astronomy in the Neolithic and Bronze Age British Isles: patterns of continuity and change. In Alex Gibson and Derek Simpson (eds.), Prehistoric Ritual and Religion: Essays in Honour of Aubrey Burl, Sutton Publishing, Stroud, 1998, 203-208.

     

 

Whose equinox? Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 22 (1997), S45–50.

 

   

Astronomy and Stonehenge. In Barry Cunliffe and Colin Renfrew (eds.), Science and Stonehenge, British Academy/Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 203–229.

     

(With Michael Hoskin) Astronomy before history. In Michael Hoskin (ed.), The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 2–21 and The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy, Cambridge University Press, 1999, 1–17.

       

 

(With Roger Martlew). Ritual and landscape on the west coast of Scotland: an investigation of the stone rows of northern Mull. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 62 (1996), 117–131.

 

Archaeoastronomy in Europe. In Christopher Walker (ed.), Astronomy Before the Telescope, British Museum Press, London, 1996, 15–27.

 

     

(With Frank Prendergast) A new archaeoastronomical investigation of the Irish axial-stone circles. In Wolfhard Schlosser (ed.), Proceedings of the Second SEAC Conference, Bochum, August 29th-31st, 1994, Bochum, 1996, 5–13.

       

 

(With Aubrey Burl) Astronomical influences on prehistoric ritual architecture in north-western Europe: the case of the stone rows. Vistas in Astronomy 39 (1995), 517–28.

 

     

The stone rows of south-west Ireland [in two parts]. Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 19 (1994), S1–20 and no. 21 (1996), S55–71.

       

The meeting of the methodological worlds? Towards the integration of different discipline-based approaches to the study of cultural astronomy. In Stanisław Iwaniszewski, Arnold Lebeuf, Andrzej Wierciński and Mariusz Ziółkowski (eds.), Time and Astronomy at the Meeting of Two Worlds, Warsaw, 1994, 497–515.

 

 

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(With Nicholas Saunders) The study of cultural astronomy. In Clive Ruggles and Nicholas Saunders (eds.), Astronomies and Cultures, University Press of Colorado, 1993, 1–31.

 

   
   
 
 

(With Roger Martlew) The North Mull project [in four parts; part 2 also with Peter Hinge]. Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 14 (1989), S137–149; no. 16 (1991), S51–75; no. 17 (1992), S1–13 and no. 18 (1993), S55–64.

 

     

A statistical examination of the radial line azimuths at Nazca. In A.F. Aveni (ed.), The Lines of Nazca, American Philosophical Society, Philadephia, 1989, 245–269.

       

 

Recent developments in megalithic astronomy. In Anthony F. Aveni (ed.), World Archaeoastronomy, Cambridge University Press, 1989, 13-26.

 

The stone alignments of Argyll and Mull: a perspective on the statistical approach in archaeoastronomy. In Clive Ruggles (ed.), Records in Stone: Papers in Memory of Alexander Thom, Cambridge University Press, 1988, 232–50.

     

The Borana calendar—some observations. Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 11 (1987), S35–53.

 

     

The linear settings of Argyll and Mull. Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 9 (1985), S105–132.

 

       

Megalithic astronomy: the last five years. Vistas in Astronomy 27 (1984), 231-289.

 

   

(With Nicholas Saunders) The interpretation of the pecked cross symbols at Teotihuacan: a methodological note. Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 7 (1984), S101–107.

 

   
 
   

A new study of the Aberdeenshire recumbent stone circles [in two parts; part 2 with Aubrey Burl]. Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 6 (1984), S55–79 and no. 8 (1985), S25–60.

       

 

A reassessment of the high precision megalithic lunar sightlines [in two parts]. Archaeoastronomy (JHA) no. 4 (1982), S21–40 and no. 5 (1983), S1–36.

 

       

A critical examination of the megalithic lunar observatories. In Clive Ruggles and Alasdair Whittle (eds.), Astronomy and Society in Britain During the Period 4000-1500 BC, BAR British Series 88, Oxford, 1981, 153–209.

 

(With Gordon Moir and Ray Norris). Megalithic science and some Scottish site plans. Antiquity 54 (1980), 40–43.

 

(With David Turton) Agreeing to disagree: the measurement of duration in a southwestern Ethiopian community. Current Anthropology 19 (1978), 585–600.

 

     

(With John Cooke, Roger Few and Guy Morgan). Indicated declinations at the Callanish megalithic sites. Journal for the History of Astronomy 8 (1977), 113–133.

 

       

(With Mark Bailey, John Cooke, Roger Few and Guy Morgan) Survey of three megalithic sites in Argyllshire. Nature 253 (1975), 431–433.

 

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Archaeoastronomy

… is the study of beliefs and practices relating to the sky in the past, especially in prehistory, and the uses to which people's know- ledge of the skies was put.

     
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