Clive Ruggles

About the new image collection


As with the original collection, the quality varies, with lower-quality images being included where they provide more complete coverage.

The images in this collection may be downloaded for private, non-profit educational use provided that copyright is acknowedged and explicit reference is made to this site (, with a link in the case of electronic media.

Higher resolution versions of the images, suitable for use in publications, are This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Coming on-line in due course:

Giza and other sites featured in the UNESCO–IAU Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy.

Temple sites of Kahikinui, Maui

Many more Iberian megaliths

Nazca geoglyphs

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Chankillo, Peru

Following the discovery (Ghezzi and Ruggles 2007) that the thirteen towers of Chankillo, dating to c. 300BC, almost exactly span the annual sunrise arc as viewed from a unique open doorway in a building to the west, the site has been proclaimed as the oldest known solar observation device in the Americas. Direct observation of the annual movement of the rising or setting sun along the horizon were likely used to regulate seasonal events such as religious festivals, and very possibly for maintaining a seasonal calendar. 

The images in this gallery (to be expanded) support the Short Case Study and Full Case Study by Iván Ghezzi on the UNESCO–IAU Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy.

The 13 towers from WOP
The 13 towers fro...
Towers 1–3 from WOP
Towers 1–3 from W...
Towers 2–6 from WOP
Towers 2–6 from W...
Towers 5–9 from WOP
Towers 5–9 from W...
Towers 8–12 from WOP
Towers 8–12 from ...
Towers 11–13 from WOP
Towers 11–13 from...
View from rectangular building entrance
View from rectang...
Alignment from rectangular building entrance
Alignment from re...
Towers 4–1 from S
Towers 4–1 from S
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… is the study of beliefs and practices relating to the sky in the past, especially in prehistory, and the uses to which people's know- ledge of the skies was put.


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Basic declination calculator


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Springer Handbook (2014):


Ocarina Books publishes and distributes books relating to archaeo- and ethnoastronomy

Alice Ruggles Trust

If you are looking for things related to Alice and/or information about stalking, please visit the Alice Ruggles Trust website